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How Thermal Management Influences Battery Performance

How Thermal Management Influences Battery Performance

18 April 2023

Choosing the right lithium battery manufacturer is essential to ensure maximum performance and durability of your battery pack. Whether you are deciding on the materials, customising the product or monitoring it afterwards, the know-how of an expert company is key. Find out why efficient thermal management ensures maximum performance of your lithium battery pack. This criterion can be key to choosing the right manufacturer for your business project.

The effects of temperature on lithium batteries

Keeping the battery temperature within an optimal range is crucial to its performance and lifetime. 

  • If the temperature is too high, it can lead to premature degradation of the battery, resulting in reduced cycle life and reduced battery capacity. 
  • If the temperature is too low, it may also reduce the capacity of the battery, which would negatively affect its performance. 

Therefore, it is important to monitor and maintain the battery temperature within the appropriate limits to maximise battery performance and prolong battery life. This is done by the advanced battery management system (bms), as well as heating and cooling systems.

Types of heating and cooling systems

There are two different ways of implementing battery heating systems: the first is by applying electrical resistors directly to the cells, while the second is through a liquid circuit. 

On the other hand, there are three different methods for cooling batteries: 

  • Forced ventilation that exchanges air in and out of the battery pack
  • Conditioning that exchanges the air inside the package 
  • Conditioning that exchanges liquids inside the package

The choice of the most suitable solution depends on the field of application, the voltage of the battery pack and the expected series production.

It is essential to choose the right types of heating and cooling systems to help the BMS achieve a balanced cell temperature range to avoid deterioration.

The cooling system in lithium batteries

The decision to insert a cooling system into a lithium battery pack is, however, more complex, as it is a particularly onerous aspect, which significantly affects the final cost of the battery and is not always functional.

Therefore, a careful preliminary study of the working requirements of the application is important: as a general rule, if the vehicle does not have fast loading or unloading times and there are no further cycles in the same day, the cooling system is not necessary.

If we take the concrete example of a street sweeper that works only a few hours a day, we can see how the inclusion of a cooling system is ineffective. In fact, if the battery is cooled but then the vehicle remains idle for the rest of the day, the battery will still be exposed to the outside temperature most of the time and therefore the integrated cooling system will be useless.

On the other hand, all those applications that are subject to intensive use, where the stress on the battery is very high due to the numerous fast charges and discharges contribute to the increase of the internal temperature.

Take for example AGVs and LGVs used in logistics systems, working in a 24/7 continuous cycle in countries such as Morocco, Brazil, Qatar, where climatic conditions are particularly high: without a cooling system, in these conditions, the lifetime of the batteries used in these applications would be drastically reduced.


→ Perfect for heavy-duty applications that require fast loading or unloading.
→ Suitable for use in vehicles where the battery charge is high

The heating system in lithium batteries 

The use of a heating system inside a lithium battery designed for a hybrid or electric vehicle is a highly recommended feature, which we at NCPOWER implement in almost all of our batteries.

Why did we adopt this thermal management option?

To avoid battery safety problems.

Lithium batteries are limited in that they cannot be charged below freezing temperatures. In addition, if left at temperatures below 10°C their internal resistance decreases causing a decrease in voltage and, consequently, a reduction in efficiency.

To ensure proper operation and constant performance even in cold temperatures, it is very advantageous to insert a heating system inside the battery.

Thanks to the heating system, a machine connected to the mains during charging can maintain the temperature of the lithium battery, for example at 15°C, and thus be ready for use with maximum performance.

The heating system then has a low impact on the overall cost of the battery and allows the application to be parked outdoors in all weather conditions.


→ Maintains unchanged battery performance
→ Increases overall vehicle efficiency
→ Allows immediate use of the application even after a period of inactivity at low temperatures.
→ Has a low impact on the total cost of the battery

Prioritise efficient thermal management when choosing your lithium battery pack

In summary, effective thermal management is critical to ensure maximum performance, durability and safety of a lithium battery pack. By choosing a suitable manufacturer and choosing a lithium battery with a thermal management system, you can ensure maximum performance, durability and safety of your lithium battery pack. monitoring software, proper thermal management and a long service life can be ensured. of the battery pack.

Every application has specific needs and, before making a decision as important as purchasing a lithium battery, it is essential to have the support of a competent and experienced manufacturer, enabling the manufacture of battery packs best suited to the application's climatology, ensuring maximum performance, safety and confidence for our customers.

The temperatures and atmospheric conditions of use, as well as the duty cycle of the application can be decisive for the choice of the system to be used within the battery pack (heating or cooling).

The type of application, its consumption, its dimensions, spaces, weight, context and forms of use are key elements that the engineering department uses in the study of each electrification project.

Our customised and modular solution can be tailored specifically to the needs and requirements of the project in question, allowing for greater efficiency in thermal management and therefore better battery performance and durability.

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