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bms in electric vehicles

5 keys to BMS integration in electric vehicles

16 June 2023

The integration of a battery management system in a vehicle is essential to ensure the safety, efficiency and optimal performance of the battery. In addition, the BMS (Battery Management System) provides valuable information for maintenance and prolonging battery life. In this post we will provide answers to: What features are essential to optimally integrate the BMS?

The BMS monitors and balances individual battery cells, prevents overcharging and over-discharging, protects against extreme environmental conditions and helps extend battery life.

5 functions of the BMS in electric vehicles

In addition to balancing, what 5 other functions does the BMS perform in electric vehicles? The NCPOWER System is highly efficient and powerful compared to conventional BMS systems. It can actively balance the battery cells with significantly higher balancing power, even during charging and discharging. This results in fast cell balancing and maximum uptime for lithium batteries.

In addition, what is commonly known as the 'brain' of the battery, i.e. its management system, can offer maximum safety and efficiency. With meticulous and precise design, NCPOWER's BMS system ensures stable performance over time and prevents any kind of failure.

Having said that, let's look at the other functions that such a system performs.

1. Real-time monitoring of each battery parameter

The intelligent BMS system performs continuous, real-time monitoring of every battery parameter. This includes monitoring temperature, voltage, current, internal resistance and other relevant parameters. 

The software collects accurate battery status data and uses it to ensure safe and efficient operation. This enables a rapid response to any anomalies or out-of-range conditions, helping to extend battery life and maintain optimum performance.

2. Sending information to the vehicle control unit, engine control, or on-board display.

In contrast to lead-acid batteries, where the vehicle electronics used to determine the state of the battery based solely on the total voltage, lithium batteries work differently. Instead of relying on vehicle electronics, lithium batteries have the ability to send their own data.

This data provided by the battery is of vital importance for a BMS system in electric vehicles. Some of the most important data includes the state of charge (SOC), which indicates the level of charge remaining in the battery. Data related to the lifetime of the battery is also sent, such as the ampere-hours (Ah) drawn from the battery and the number of charge/discharge cycles it has undergone.

In addition, the battery sends specific signals to enable the management of special functions. For example, it can send a signal to deactivate certain vehicle functions depending on the state of charge or temperature. This helps to protect the battery and ensure optimal performance.

3.Controlling the battery charger

The intelligent BMS communicates with the electric vehicle charger using Power Line Communication. Through this technology, the BMS sends commands and parameters to the charger, such as the desired charging current or battery status information. In addition, the charger also sends information to the BMS, such as charging data, diagnostic information and any alert messages.

The use of Power Line Communication in the CCS Combo protocol enables effective and secure communication between the BMS and the electric vehicle charger without the need for additional communication cables. By leveraging the existing charging infrastructure, simple and efficient integration between the BMS and the charging system is achieved, ensuring optimal and safe charging of the lithium battery.

4. Lithium battery pack heating and cooling

The intelligent BMS system also plays an important role in heating and cooling the lithium battery pack.

First, the BMS monitors the temperature of the individual cells and the battery pack as a whole. This is achieved through the use of temperature sensors strategically placed inside the battery pack. By having knowledge of the temperature, the BMS can make decisions on heating and cooling strategies.

On the other hand, during cooling, the BMS can activate cooling systems, such as fans or liquid cooling, to dissipate heat generated during intense charging or discharging. This helps to keep the battery temperature within an optimal operating range and prevents overheating that can damage the battery and reduce its lifetime.

The BMS uses sophisticated algorithms and control strategies to optimise the heating and cooling of the battery pack. This ensures that the temperature is kept within safe limits and that the battery operates efficiently and reliably in a variety of environmental conditions.

5. Performing predictive analytics throughout the life of the vehicle.

One of the key functions of an intelligent BMS system is the ability to perform predictive analytics over the life of the vehicle. This involves continuously collecting and analysing data to predict battery behaviour and performance over time.

The BMS records and stores data related to battery status, such as charge level, temperature, charge and discharge current, and other relevant parameters. Using advanced algorithms and analysis models, the BMS processes this data to generate predictions about battery life, future performance and maintenance needs.

These predictive analyses are valuable for both the vehicle manufacturer and the owner. In addition, they also allow the detection of potential problems or abnormal battery conditions before they become serious failures. This provides the opportunity to take early corrective action and avoid costly or dangerous situations.

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